The PAM-2500 chlorophyll fluorometers are successors of the well-known PAM-2000/2100 instruments which were introduced in the 1990s as the first portable PAM fluorometers. Since then they have been successfully applied worldwide by numerous scientists.
In the development of the PAM-2500, particular care was taken to maintain all properties appreciated by PAM-2000/2100 users and, at the same time, to integrate state-of-the-art technology.
Essentially, the hardware and optical system are thoroughly modernized. Also, while continuing basic elements of the graphical user interface, instrument operation is based on the newly-developed PamWin-3 software.
The program permits operation under Windows operating systems on normal personal computers, but also on ultra mobile touch screen computers (UMPC).
Major Points of Progress of the PAM-2500:
Fluorometer / General Design
Signal detection: PIN-photodiode protected by long-pass filter (T(50%)=715 nm). Selective window amplifier
Sockets: Connector for Special Fiberoptics 2010-F. USB socket. Sockets for Leaf Clip Holder 2030-B or Micro Quantum/Temperature-Sensor 2060-M, Battery Charger MINI-PAM/L or external 12 V battery via MINIPAM/AK cable, and external lamp/trigger output
Communication: USB. Bluetooth Version 2.0 + EDR Class 2
User interface: Windows computer with PamWin-3 software
Power consumption: Basic operation 1.6 W, 8 W with all internal light sources operated at maximum output (measuring light, red and blue actinic light, and far red light). Saturation pulse at maximum intensity, 30 W
Power supply: Rechargeable sealed lead-acid battery 12 V/2 Ah; Battery Charger MINI-PAM/L (100 to 240 V AC)
Recharging time: 6 hours (with the PAM-2500 turned off) via Battery Charger MINI-PAM/L
Operating temperature:-5 to +40 °C
Operating humidity range: 20 to 95% RH to avoid condensation
Dimensions: 23 cm x 10.5 cm x 10.5 cm (L x W x H) aluminum housing
Weight: 2.5 kg (including battery)
Fluorometer / Light Output
Measuring light: Red LEDs, maximum emission at 630 nm, FWHM (full width at half maximum) 20 nm. 1 μs pulses at modulation frequencies 10 to 5000 Hz for Fo determinations (200 Hz default), and 1 to 100 kHz during actinic illumination, fast kinetics with 100 or 200 kHz, 20 intensity levels, frequency dependent effective PAR ranging from 0.001 to 100 μmol m-2 s-1
Blue actinic light: LEDs, maximum emission at 455 nm, FWHM 20 nm, PAR up to 800 μmol m-2 s-1, 20 intensity levels
Red actinic light: LEDs, maximum emission at 630 nm, FWHM 15 nm, PAR up to 4000 μmol m-2 s-1, 20 intensity levels
Saturation pulses: Red LEDs (see red actinic light), PAR up to 25000 μmol m-2 s-1, adjustable between 0.1 and 0.8 s, 20 intensity levels
Multiple turn-over flashes: Red LEDs (see red actinic light), PAR up to 25000 μmol m-2 s-1, adjustable between 1 and 800 ms, 20 intensity levels
Single turn-over flashes: Red LEDs (see red actinic light), PAR up to 125000 μmol m-2 s-1, adjustable between 5 and 50 μs
Far-red light: LED, maximum emission at 750 nm, FWHM 25 nm, 20 intensity levels